In order to reduce direct site emissions, the companies propose the implementation of some operational procedures including energy efficient electrical equipment, staff training and awareness on energy minimization strategies, use of LED lighting fixtures in the tunnel, use of cement/concrete with reduced CO2 emissions etc.
To reduce the construction site impact in terms of effects on climate change, it is intended to offset 100% of estimated emissions with balance projects related to the VCS - Verified Carbon Standard.
In particular, it is intended to offset 28,143 tons of CO2eq through the purchase of carbon credits from projects that develop renewable sources with the aim of reducing the use of fossil fuels and related emissions into the atmosphere. The purchase will be annual, spread over the duration of the site, indicatively equal to 6 years.
CO2eq emissions will be quantified annually through an LCA study, in accordance with current international standards, including those of the 140401 series, in order to update the expected emission framework.
The offset project of CO2 equivalent emissions will be composed of a mix of projects able to provide electricity from renewable sources and consequently avoid greenhouse gas emissions from non-renewable sources (eg coal-fired power plants). Specifically, two hydroelectric power plant projects active in Georgia and Turkey are proposed.